Perceived Wellness



Perception is Reality






Research Using the PWS

Philosophical basis and statistical methods used in the PWS.

Adams, T., Bezner, J., Steinhardt, M. The conceptualization and measurement of perceived wellness: Integrating balance across and within dimensions. American Journal of Health Promotion 1997; 11(3): 208-218.

Manuscripts that describe the construct validity of the PWS:

Adams, T., Bezner, J., Garner, L., Woodruff, S. Construct validation of the perceived wellness survey. American Journal of Health Studies, 1998; 14(4): 212-219. Article.

Bezner, J., Adams, T. The relationship between physical activity and indicators of wellness. American of Journal of Health Studies. 1999; 15(3): 130-138. Article.

Adams, T., Bezner, J., Drabbs, M., Steinhardt, M., Zambarano, R. The conceptualization and measurement of spiritual and psychological wellness in a college student population. Journal of American College Health 2000; 48:165-173. Article.

Research using the PWS includes:
Bezner, J R. Hunter, D L. Wellness perception in persons with traumatic brain injury and its relation to functional independence. Archives of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation. 2001; 82(6):787-92. Article 

Byron K, et al. The value of life purpose: purpose as a mediator of faith and well-being. Journal of Positive Psychology, 2009; 4(1): 64-70.

Carter CS. Effects of Formal Dance Training and Education on Student Performance, Perceived Wellness, and Self-Concept in High School Students.  Dissertation at the University of Florida, 2004. (The Perceived Wellness Survey – Youth version was piloted tested and determined to have an internal reliability coefficient of alpha = .88).

Dolbier CL. Soderstrom M. Steinhardt MA. The relationships between self-leadership and enhanced psychological, health, and work outcomes.
Journal of Psychology. 2001;135(5):469-85. Article.

Goodwin IC. The relationship between perceived wellness and stages of change for exercise among rural African American women. 2009; Doctoral dissertation.

Harari, MJ, Waehler, CA, Rogers, JR. An Empirical Investigation of a Theoretically Based Measure of Perceived Wellness. Journal of Counseling Psychology. 2005; 52(1): 93-103. Abstract.

Jewell DV. The Role of Questionnaires in Health Promotion Programs that Emphasize Regular Physical Activity or Fitness. Cardiopulmotiary Physical Therapy Journal. 2005;16(1).

Ketz K., Israel T. The Relationship Between Women's Sexual Identity and Perceived Wellness. Journal of Bisexuality. 2002; 2(2/3):223-238. Abstract.

Kinney CK. Rodgers DM. Nash KA. Bray CO. Holistic healing for women
with breast cancer through a mind, body, and spirit self-empowerment program. Journal of Holistic Nursing. 2003; 21(3):260-79. Article.

Sidman CL, et al. Exercise self-efficacy and perceived wellness among college students in a basic studies course. Int. Electronic J of Health Educ., 2009;12:162-74

Tsai Cheng-Yu. The relationships between leisure participation and perceived wellness among Taiwanese adults ages 55 to 75 years (China). Dissertation at University of the Incarnate Word, 2004.  Abstract.

In what languages is the PWS available?

The PWS has been translated into Portuguese, Japanese, Finnish, Chinese, Spanish, Lithuanian, and Hungarian. In addition, there is a version for youth (PWS-Y) in English, Chinese and Spanish.

For copies of the PWS Self Scoring Version or the PWS Youth Version send me an email.